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Sport Science Training

Introduction

Since tae-kwon-do has become an optical Olympic event competition in this event. Therefore, apart from keeping outstanding instructors and contestants, we must integrate the training and technology to elevate the training efficiency. The most important function for a successful coach is to help athletes to improve their athletic skill in a wide range of tasks from sequential development and mastery of basic skills for beginners, to the more specialized physical, technical, tactical and psychological preparation of elite athletes (Martens,1987) (Bompa,1983). Fast development of world-class high strength training and science has had a significant impact on the scientific training. Examples included weight control, not only covering the grading of various levels of athlete’s body weight but also balancing physical ability and health. Sport training is important even for excellent athletes. Only when their cardio respiratory function, energy expenditure and blood lactate system are well controlled can they show their potential and maintain high performance. This is very important to both coaches and athletes (Hiroyuki et al., 1999). Peaking, or the ability of an athlete to perform at peak performance during the main competition or games of the year, is also related to strength training.

To maintain a good performance throughout the competitive phase a physiological base must be maintained(Bompa,1999). The determination of physiological variables such as the anaerobic threshold(AT) and maximal oxygen uptake(VO2max) through incremental exercise testing, and relevance of these variables to endurance performance, is a major requirement for coaches and athletes(Bentley, Mcnaughton, Thompson,& Batterhan,2001).

Sport Science Training – Oxygen Consumption and Heart Rate

Heller et al(1998) pointed out that TaekwonDo could not only improve human cardio respiratory endurance but also enhance practitioners’ martial arts spirit, and form good exercise and self-defense exercise. It also is classified as a high-strength anaerobic capacity exercise. Shin (1993) reported that excellent international Tae-kwon-Do athletes must have high speed and power for them to win the international games. The energy system of anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity mainly comes from ATP and Glycolsis system. Tae-kwon-Do practice had positive impact on the improvement of human cardio respiratory and physical ability (Pieter et al., 1990).

Heller et al (1998) found that the maximum oxygen consumption volume was 57.0 ml/kg/min in Spanish international Tae-kwon-Do athletes and 53.8 ml/kg/min in Czech international athletes. The maximum oxygen uptake in Tae-kwon-Do black-belt athletes is 44.0 ml/kg/min (Drobni et al.,1995). Bompa(1999)investigated boxing and martial arts , a quick and powerful start of an offensive skill prevents an opponent from using an effective action. The elastic, reactive component of muscle is of vital important for delivering quick action and powerful starts.

Drobnic (1995)discussed recreational Tae-kwon-do athletes had a mean VO 2max about 44.0 ml/kg/min; however, the VO 2max values for elite athletes would be significantly higher than the athletes of recreational level. The National Taekwando Team of China had an average of VO 2max of 57.57 ml/kg/min. The mean VO 2max value of the Korean National Team, the perennial dominant power of this event, was about 59.56 ml/kg/min (Hong, 1997). Heller et al(1998) reported the average VO 2max of the black-belt athletes on the Spanish national squad was 57.0 ml/kg/min, and as for the Czech Republic Team, the value was 53.8 ml/kg/min. Based on the results of previous research, it was suggested that male and female contestants with VO 2max of 65 ml/kg/min and 55 ml/kg/min respectively, had a better chance to win the Olympic medals. Intensive aerobic training could improve the physiological functions of highly trained sport contestants ( Cooke et al., 1997). Guidetti, Musulin, & Baldari (2002) examined the physiological characteristics of the middleweight class boxers. Their VO 2max at the individual anaerobic threshold was about 46.0±4.2ml/kg/min and their VO 2max was 57.5±4.7 ml/kg/min. In addition, their hand-grip strengths and wrist girths were measured and compared to other combat-sports athletes.

In a competitive Olympic (non-professional) boxing match, boxers must fight for a total of 11 minutes. The fight is structured for three 3-minute rounds with a 1-min rest interval between each round. An athlete must have a high anaerobic threshold level and aerobic power level to meet the demand of this sport (Guidetti et al.,2002). Zabukovec & Tiidus(1995) investigated t he physiological characteristics of kickboxers .Professional male middleweight (73-77 kg) and welterweight (63-67 kg) kickboxers were determined to have relatively higher aerobic capacities (VO 2max , 54-69 ml/kg/min) than previously reported for many other power or combat athletes.

Blood Analysis

Heller et al (1998) reported that in male and female international TKD competitions, peak blood lactate after 143 seconds could reach the highest, 11.4 mmol/l. The change in the blood lactate has close relationship with the TKD competition intensity and competition performance (Hultman & Sahlin, 1980). The result showed lowered blood lactic acid than others. To improve the intensive training to the player between training and competition period.

Hetzler et al (1989) pointed out that excellent martial players should have the characteristics of very good physical ability, high speed and great strength, blood lactate ranging from 1.51-3.23 mol/100 ml, and blood pH value decreasing from 7.39 to 7.34 mg/dl. TKD players not only must have anaerobic metabolism with greater explosive power, but also have very good aerobic endurance; therefore, the TKD players; therefore, TKD athletes must have very good anaerobic ability and demand for higher aerobic metabolism capacity (Ho,1998).

Jack & David (1999) found that the resting blood lactate are 1.0 mmo/l 、 1.0 mmol/l 、 1.0mmol/l respectively for ordinary athletes, and international athletes before and after exercise; maximum blood lactate are 7.5 、 8.5 、 9.0 mmo/l respectively.

Ho., Chiang,& Tsai(1998) found that in 1998 Asia Games, having 4 TKD athletes participate in the winning competition in the training team, the results showed that their maximum blood lactate was 6.74 mmol/l, and BUN tended to increase gradually after competition.

From these results, we know although the time of TKD games is short, it may cause the damage in muscle fiber. To excellent athletes, if the quality and quantity of training intensity, cardio respiratory function, energy consumption, and blood lactate system during training can be well controlled, furthermore to well control their body weight and physical ability, the athletes can elaborate their potential and maintain peak performance. It is very important to coaches and athletes (Hiroyuki et al., 1999).

Power Output

Zabukovec & Tiidus(1995) investigated professional male middleweight (73-77 kg) and welterweight (63-67 kg) kickboxers. The results showed relatively anaerobic capacities (8.2-11.2 Watt/Kg) than previously reported for many other power or combat athletes. The results showed lower than Kickboxers’ anaerobic capacities. Bompa(1999) investigated strength training has become widely accepted as a determinant element in athletic performance. Thus, the main objective of the conversion phase is to synthesize those physiological foundation for advancements in athletic performance during the competitive phase.

Therefore, martial arts and boxers must be to react quickly and powerfully to an opponent’s attack. Both aerobic and anaerobic energy is used during a bout and should be trained. Reactive strength and agility are necessary to respond to an opponent’s strategy. Limiting factors: Power endurance(P-E), reactive power, M-E(muscle endurance)medium or long(professional boxer (Bompa,1999). Power is simply the product of muscle force (F) multiplied by the velocity(v) of movement: P=F*V for athletic purpose, any increase in power must be the result of improvements in either strength, speed, or a combination of the two (Bompa,1999).

This is a accomplished by shorting the time of motor unit recruitment, especially FT fibers, and increasing the tolerance of the motor neurons to increased innervations frequencies(Hakkinen, 1986;Hakkinen & Komi,1983).

The other way, it’s important technology for the coach and player to improve the starting power because it is an essential and often determinant ability in sports where the initial speed of action dictates the final outcome(boxing, karate, fencing, the start in sprinting, or the beginning of an aggressive acceleration from standing in team sports). The athlete’s ability to recruit the highest possible number of FT fibers to start the motion explosively is the fundamental physiological characteristic necessary for successful performance(Bompa,1999).

Conclusions

It’s meaningful and helpful for player and coach t o monitor the physiological characteristic between training and competition period. Thus, it’s benefit for the player and coach to manage the peak performance and avoid the over training. To recover quickly and keep a steady state is important for the coach and player. However, Tae-kwon-do exercise need to stronger power including the speed and velocity. Athletes are constantly exposed to various types of training loads, some of which exceed their tolerance threshold. When athletes drive themselves beyond their physiological limits, they risk fatigue(Bompa,1999).

References

Bentley, D.J., Mcnaughton, L.R., Thompson, D.,& Batterham, A.M.(2001). Peak power, the lactate threshold, and time trail performance in cyclists. Medicine Science Sport Exercise. 33(12),2077-2081.

Bompa, T. O. (1983). Theory and methodology of training: the key to athletic performance. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

Cooke, S.R., Patersen, S.R.,& Quinney ,H.A.(1997). The influence of maximal aerobic power on recovery of skeletal muscle following aerobic exercise. European Journal of Physiology, 75, 512-519.

Drobnic, F., Nunez, M., Riera, J. et al.(1995). Profil de condition fisica del equipo national de Taekwon-Do. In 8th FIMS European Sports Medicine Congress. Granada, Spain.

Guidetti, L., Musulin, A.,& Baldari, C.(2002). Physiological factors in middleweight boxing performance. Journal Sport Medicine Physical Fitness, 42, 309-314.

Hakkinen, K.(1986).Training and detraining adaptations in electromyography. Muscle fiber and force production characteristics of human leg extensor muscle with special reference to prolonged heavy resistance and explosive-type strength training. Studies in Sport, Physical Education and Health. 20.

Hakkinen, K.,& Komi, P.(1983).Electromyographic changes during strength training and detraining. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.15,455-460.

Heller, J., Peric, T., Dlouha, R. et al.(1998). Physiological
profiles of male and female taekwon-do (ITF) black belts. Sports Science. 16:243-9.

Hetzler, R. K., Knowlton, R. G., Brown D. D. et al.(1989). The effect of voluntary ventilation on acid-base responses to a Moo Duk Tkow form. Research Quality for Exercise and Sports. 60 :77-80.

Hiroyuki Imamura, Yoshitaka Yoshimura, Seiji Nishimura et al.(1999).Oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate response during and following karate training. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise. 31(2):342-346.

Ho, C.F., Chiang, J.S.,& Tsai, M.J.(1998), The impact of Taekwon-Do on urine lactate, blood urine nitrogen and serum creatine kinase. The essay collection of 1998 International Junior College Coach Conference.

Hong, S.L.(1997a), Research in physiologic biochemistry characteristics of Korean excellent TKD athletes. Beijing: Sports University College News, 20 (1), 22-27.

Hong, S. L. (1997b). Physiological and biochemical characteristics of excellent Korean contestants of Taekwondo. The Academic Journal of Beijing Physical Education University, 20(1), 22-29.

Jack, H.,W.,& David, L.C.(1999). Physiology of Sport and Exercise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Martens, R. (1987). Coaches guide to sport psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Pieter, W., Taaffe, D.,& Heijmans, J.(1990). Heart rate response to Taekwon-Do forms and technique combinations. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 30:97-102.

Shin, J.K.(1993). Train to be a champion. World Taekwon-Do Federation Magazine . 47,63-66.

Zabukovec, R.,& Tiidus, P.M.(1995). Physiological and anthropometrical profile of elite kick boxers. Journal of strength and conditioning research. 9(4).240-242

 


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